Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan in Western India. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its Western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. It was ranked the best placed state by the "Eleventh Finance Commission" for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.
Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.
Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot.
Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats, yields evidence for Acheulean occupation. Rock art engravings are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur.
Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa, Shivachitta Paramadideva. Circa 1147?1187 AD.Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.
In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da ?ndia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory.
After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army began military operations with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, Daman, and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory.
Language And Culture
Konkani in the Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". Portuguese was the sole official language during Portuguese colonial rule.
Goa's culture is an interesting amalgamation of both Eastern and Western styles, with the latter having a more dominant role. Western royal attire of kings is as much part of Goa's cultural heritage as are regional dances performed depicting a unique blend of different religions and cultures of this State. Prominent local festivals are Christmas, Easter, Carnival, Diwali, Shigmo, Chavoth, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc. The Goan Carnival and Christmas-new year celebrations are well known to attract a large number of tourists.
Gaur (Bos gaurus)
Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul (Pycnonotus gularis)
Red Jasmine (Plumeria rubra)
Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)
4.Museum of Christian Art
5.Archaeological Museum and Portrait Gallery
2.Vasco Da Gama
How to Reach
Dabolim Airport, approximately 26 km away from Panaji (capital city of Goa), is the main domestic as well as international aerodrome. This airport has two terminals, Terminal 1 is the domestic terminal and Terminal 2 is the international terminal. All major domestic carriers including AirAsia India, Air India, GoAir, IndiGo, Jet Airways and SpiceJet have regular flights from Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Lucknow, Kolkata, Indore, Chennai and Pune, among others. Serving international destinations such as Muscat, Doha and Copenhagen are the airlines such as Novair, Qatar Airways and Oman Air, to name a few.
Reaching Goa by train is quite convenient as there are two main railheads serving the state, namely Vasco da Gama and Madgaon. These two railway stations are extremely well linked to other parts of the country via an extensive train network. There are regular trains from Delhi for Madgaon, where Goa Sampark Kranti Express and Trivandrum Express are the most prominent ones. While Madgaon railway station is about 38 km away from Panjim, Vasco da Gama railway is approximately 29 km away.
There are a number of public as well as private bus operators in Goa, which offer options for intra-city and inter-city conveyance. KSRTC, MSRTC and KTC are some of the Government undertakings that operate from Panaji, Madgaon and Vasco Da Gama. Private bus operators include the likes of Neeta Tour and Travels, Paulo Travels and Naik Tours and Travels. Goa enjoys daily bus service from important cities like Mumbai and Pune.